Abstract: Chitosan, a handy hydrophilic polysaccharide resulting from chitin, has a comprehensive antimicrobial spectrum to which gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria and fungi are highly vulnerable. In present study, the anti-bacterial activity of chitosan extracted from local species of Macrobrachium lamarrei lamarrei(prawn) of Bhopal city,against gram positive and gram negative bacteria was investigated.The exoskeleton, taken from outer body of prawn, was demineralized with 2.5% of HCL solution for 2 hours and then, deproteinized with 2% KOH solution for 2 hours at room temperature. Then, deacetylized with 40% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature. After deacetylization of chitosan, it was further analysed by FTIR spectroscopy and anti-bacterial activity of chitosan was evaluated against Proteus vulgaris (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive) bacteria by well diffusion assay. The results of antibacterial activity of chitosan was found efficient at higher concentrationin 75 μg/ml with maximum zone of inhibition (31.67± 1.5 mm) and (35± 2 mm)against Proteus vulgaris and Streptococcus mutans.Thus,it was concluded that the chitosan extracted from Macrobrachium lamarrei speciesof prawn possess the potential antibacterial activity against Proteus vulgaris and Streptococcus mutans which may be used as n better antimicrobial agent in various industrial applications.
Abstract: Chronic anal fissure is a common health problem related to high morbidity. The chemical options for treating chronic anal fissures is highly preferred. To compare the efficacy and effects of topical Diltiazem (DTZ) and topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in the management of chronic anal fissures.
A clinical prospective comparative study was carried out in the General Surgery Outpatient Department in Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, during the period from January 2019 to December 2021, on a sample of 100 randomly recruited patients with chronic anal fissure divided into two groups with 50 participants each: the DTZ group, who received 2% diltiazem ointment, and the GTN group, who used 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment twice daily for 6 consecutive weeks. There was a highly significant association between fissure healing at the 4th week and patients treated with DTZ (p<0.001). A highly significant association was observed at the 6th week between fissure healing and DTZ treatment (p<0.001), while there was later a highly significant association between fissure healing at 8th week and patients treated with GTN (p<0.001). A significant association was observed between treatment adverse effects and patients treated with GTN (p=0.05). DTZ was found to be more effective for symptomatic relief than GTN. Both DTZ and GTN are effective in the treatment of chronic anal fissures, but treatment with DTZ is accompanied with faster healing and lower side effects.