European Journal of Medicine and Veterinary Sciences-Novus (Ejmvs)

Volume 1, Issue 1 : June 2021

Paper id:0100001IJESIR     Open Access

Title: Field study on the occurrence of Navel ill in cow calves

Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]         Full Paper       [Download]         Page: 4-8

Abstract: Among total of 400 calves (≤15 days), 203 were randomly selected from different dairy small farms and 197 from smallholder farmers of the study area. Among 203 calves from small dairy farms, the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was 12.08% and among 197 calves from smallholder farmers, the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was 46.5 %. Among total 400 calves, the occurrence was 29.25%. The percentage of infection at dairy farms and local smallholder farmers of study areas among Friesian, Sahiwal, Jersy, Cholistani and Crossbred female calves was 21.73%, 37.50%, and 14.28%, 22.22% and 14.10% respectively. The percentage of infection at dairy farms and local smallholder farmers of study area among Friesian, Sahiwal, Jersy, Cholistani and Crossbred male calves was 22.22%, 88.23%, 16.66%, 33.33% and 40.98% respectively. It is concluded that navel ill is a managemental disease, more in males as compared to female calves, and occurs when calves born and reared in unhygienic conditions. This study also concludes that crossbred and local breeds of Pakistan are more resistant against navel ill as compared to exotic breeds.

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Paper id:0100002IJESIR     Open Access

Title: Clinico-Therapeutical Trials against Endoparasite of Ostrich in Lahore

Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]         Full Paper       [Download]         Page: 9-15

Abstract: This is the first study conducted in Pakistan to find the prevalence, comparative efficiency of levamisole, piperazine and Methanolic extract of the Hedera helix against endoparasites. Eighty ostrich faecal samples were collected, forty-three faecal samples were found positive for egg per gram of CappilariaAscaridia and Eimeria species. Among forty-three birds, nineteen were positive for adult parasites of Cappilaria, Ascaridia and Eimeria species with the prevalence of 7.50%, 6.25% and 10.00% respectively. Chemotherapeutic trials on the birds positive for endoparasites were done. The maximum efficacy of methanolic extract of Hedera helix was 87.01% and 81.01% against Cappilaria and Ascaridia species respectively. Comparatively, levamisole was more effective (93%) against Cappilaria species and less effective (87%) against Ascaridia species while piperazine was more effective (97%) against Ascaridia species and less effective (84%) against Cappilaria species. Control group birds showed an increased number of eggs per gram. It was concluded that as the efficacy of methanolic extract of Hedera helix was very close to levamisole and piperazine, so the seeds of the Hedera helix plant can be given to ostriches as a routine feed once or twice a month to avoid parasitism because it is very difficult to handle large birds for routine deworming.

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Paper id:0100003IJESIR     Open Access

Title: Review and Update: Pediatric HIV-Preventing and Treating form the Roots of HIV in Newborns

Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]         Full Paper       [Download]         Page:

Abstract: The review update gives emphasis on the need and points to put light on in challenging prevention, treatment, and management of pediatric HIV. Since the first cases of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were identified, the number of children infected with HIV has risen dramatically in developing countries, the result of an increased number of HIV-infected women of childbearing age in these areas. HIV is a retrovirus and can be transmitted vertically, sexually, or via contaminated blood products or IV drug abuse. Vertical HIV infection occurs before birth, during delivery, or after birth. India, the prevention of parent-to-child transmission and antiretroviral therapy services for HIV-infected mothers and children have been rapidly scaled up over the recent years. Despite these advances and initiatives still, a large number of HIV-infected children are born every year. A thorough literature review has been done by retrieving related studies (published from the year 2015 onward); using a Medline search and by extracting recent findings from the official websites of the National AIDS Control Organization, UNAIDS, and World Health Organization. The efforts that are made to control pediatric HIV are challenged by a large range of factors such as low health service utilization, poor drug adherence, delayed infant diagnosis, the discriminatory attitude of health providers, loss of follow-up and poor coordination in managing the continuum of care. These challenges may be addressed by adopting innovative and effective strategies for implementation and awareness and strengthening the existing health system for the prevention and management of the cause of new HIV cases that is the pediatrics HIV population. This would bring about a significant reduction in pediatric HIV incidence and improve the outcomes in children who are HIV infected.

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Paper id:0100004IJESIR     Open Access

Title: Role of Pharmacist in Counseling Diabetic Patients in Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]         Full Paper       [Download]         Page: 

Abstract: Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and is associated with abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. It is a lifelong chronic condition that requires self-management, lifestyle modifications and adherence to ant diabetes medications. The chronic complications may lead to micro vascular, macro vascular and neuropathic disorders. The pharmacist can play an important role in counseling and the counseling must include non-pharmacological and pharmacological measures. A pharmacist can coordinate with the physician during drug therapy and apply his expertise in identifying, resolving, and preventing drug related problems by providing interventions that are a valuable aid in accurate, safe, and cost-effective use of drugs for the physician. A pharmacist also plays a significant role in diabetic care and educating patients about the high risk of diabetes, monitoring diabetic treatment goals, and providing counseling for medication adherence, which will help in optimizing the blood sugar level and enhance the quality of life in patients with diabetic mellitus.

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Paper id:0100005IJESIR     Open Access

Title: Convolutional Neural Network In Medical Image Analysis

Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]         Full Paper       [Download]         Page: 36-44

Abstract: The aim of this study is to create a video of the medical images from the test dataset with the actual and predicted class of each image using the model that has been built. To build a model using deep learning algorithm that classify and detect the presence of pneumonia from the given chest x-ray dataset. The generated video showed the images along with the actual class and the predicted class. The built model is evaluated and predicted on the validation and the test datasets accordingly. Based on the confusion matrix, it has been analysed that the validation dataset is having the highest accuracy among the test and the train datasets.

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Paper id:0100006IJESIR     Open Access

Title: Dyslipidemia among Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending Aden Abdulle Hospital in Mogadishu Somalia

Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]         Full Paper       [Download]         Page:45-57 

Abstract: Patients with diabetes mellitus are at high risk of cardiovascular events because of abnormal lipid status. Dyslipidemia is common in diabetes mellitus and is associated with cardiovascular complications. Early diagnosis and treatment is the main cornerstone in the prevention of its multiple complications. There is scarcity of data on the magnitude and risk factors associated with dyslipidemia among diabetic patients in Somalia. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal lipid profile levels among T2DM patients attending Aden Abdulle Hospital in Mogadishu Somalia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2018 to December 2019 involving 120 diabetic patients, who were at age 35 years and above from Aden Abdulle Hospital, Mogadishu Somalia. A structured questionnaire was administrated to evaluate the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Standard procedures were followed for measuring blood pressure and body mass index. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure lipid profiles. Data analysis was done by statistical package for social science version 20 statistical software and chi square test were used for data analysis and p-value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: This study found out 22.5% of the T2DM patients had dyslipidemia. This was slightly similar to findings in Tanzania 30% (Chattanda SP, 2015), but lower compared to those done in Nigeria 74% (Isezuo SA, Ezunu E., 2005), Kenya 86% (Sang Kipligat, 2017) where 86% and 89% dyslipidemia prevalence were reported (bathma, 2016). This difference may be due to the variation in cut-offs for dyslipidemia in these different studies. And difference in stage of urbanization in the various settings. (Amine E, Baba N, Belhadj M, et al., 2002). A third of participants had insufficient amount of physical activity which is similar to previous findings (Nelson KM, Reiber G, & Boyko EJ, 2012). Dyslipidemia was more prevalent in females than in males which are consistent with a study in the Middle East that found females to be more dyslipidemic (Siddiqui SA, Khatoon AB et al., 2011). Despite short period since diagnosis of diabetes, majority had dyslipidemia and multiple CVD risk. This finding was similar to previous study that found that T2DM patients compared with non-diabetic people have increased cardiovascular risk (Harris MI, 2005). Part of this is associated with a higher prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors like obesity and hypertension (Martin-Timon I et al, 2016). The study found 22.5% of dyslipidemia among T2DM patients attending Aden Ade hospital in Mogadishu Somalia. This is soon on after diagnosis of DM despite good physical activity. Occupation, BMI, FBS and insufficient physical activity are more predictors of dyslipidemia. There is an urgent need for effective strategies for primary prevention of obesity, diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia among diabetic patients.

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